Socialist intellectuals like had realised that in a completely socialised economy, would not exist and central planners would have to resort to in-kind rather than monetary. Max Webber believed that bureaucracy structure of management is the most rational and logical form of management which would make an organization highly efficient and successful. In Protestant religion, Christian piety towards God was expressed through one's secular vocation secularisation of. The political bosses succumb to the bureaucrats because without them they will not be able to shoulder the burden of decision-making and policy implementing activities. Thus this theory can be sometimes viewed as part of the theory. Especially important to Weber's work is the neo-Kantian belief that reality is essentially chaotic and incomprehensible, with all rational order deriving from the way the human mind focuses attention on certain aspects of reality and organises the resulting perceptions.
When the office is fully developed, official activity demands the full working capacity of the official, irrespective of the fact that his obligatory time in the bureau may be firmly delimited. The bureaucrats make adjustments between new and old policies, and amend the old ones to suit the needs of the new government. They do not state an average type. It implies that communication coming down or going up must pass through each position. His research in that period was focused on economics and legal history. In a complex and clandestine way prime ministers and some other top political executives appoint their own men to the crucial posts of administration. The exponent of one view is Marx who has branded it as an instrument of class rule; the spokesperson of another view is the other German thinker Max Weber who believes that to tackle the complex of any modern administration the bureaucracy is an inevitable instrument.
Bureaucracy is run by rational administrative machine and because of the rationality Weber calls it an ideal type. Hence they have to follow the monotonous model of operation. Maintenance of Stability : Bureaucracy acts as a powerful instrument for the stabilisation or maintenance of political system. This is why he believed that the lower ranked office should have a right to appeal the decisions made by the higher ranked office. Traditional authority, where is obeyed for a respect of the old order. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978 , vol.
Since bureaucrats are all rational human being it is quite natural that they will make attempts for the realisation of these objectives. It is not impossible, however, to find such type of a leader, as history would show. But within a few years of their freedom political they realised that this political freedom could not ensure economic development. Organization by functional specialty Work is to be done by specialists, and people are organized into units based on the type of work they do or skills they have. If it is not timely controlled the salutary effects will be eclipsed by its shortcomings which we have briefly stated.
The bureaucrats try to achieve these keeping themselves within the legal framework and political structure-of society. They are to act in accordance with the law and regulations made by the state. All we see is dirt, muck, dung, and horse-play—nothing else. The bureaucracy has a mission, whether it is to make money or realize another specific goal. The term bureaucracy means the rules and regulations, processes, procedures, patterns, etc. Bureaucratic system is characterised by impersonal and written rules.
Because bureaucracy is rational it has earned tremendous popularity during the last one century and every state, both small and big, has adopted the bureaucratic mode of administration. It was generally concerned with the administration of the state. Effective leaders have some common characteristics: 1 Height: taller than other group members. The duties and responsibilities of each job are clearly defined there is no question of overlapping or conflicting job duties. Some bureaucracies have been criticized as being inefficient, convoluted, or too inflexible to individuals. Here the duty of the bureaucrats is to provide all facts and figures and the policy is formulated by the ministers and officials jointly.
His work also questioned why capitalism did not develop in China. It must be a full-time employment and the compensation should be in salary that matches the qualification and prevailing standards. Institutions comprising a modern state can also be regarded as an element. The views and ideologies of the senior executives are known to the ministers and, on the basis of that, the ministers transfer the officers or appoint their favourite persons to important posts. If one person leaves then some other occupies that place and the work does not suffer.
This is considered as a waste of money and efforts as the management is always focused on cost reduction to develop high efficiency. British rulers had no intention to make India economically self-sufficient. Bureaucracy simply states that people should be expected to follow certain rules and procedures rather than their personal preferences in order to bring order to managerial systems and to simplify the task of managing large corporations. The official of the topmost rank is responsible to the political executives, that is, ministers or president. Max Weber cited five major principles that combine to make a bureaucracy. Some men today raise question about these qualities of bureaucracy.
These principles and characteristics were widely received by both the public and private sectors, and the very basics of a bureaucratic system are actually based on these six principles proposed by Max Weber in his theory of bureaucracy. Specially the following aspects of bureaucracy work against efficiency of the organisation, though they are supposed to contribute to efficiency: 1. His widow Marianne helped prepare it for its publication in 1921—22. The basic points of differences are noted below: 1 Marx and Engels believed that the state was the outcome of the rise of property system, classes and class antagonisms. The Forging of the Modern State: Early Industrial Britain, 1783—1870.