Also, participative decision-making may not always be feasible or successful due to the nature of the work or the willingness of the workers. In both technical and nontechnical contexts, theory can also be synonymous with hypothesis, a conjecture put forth as a possible explanation of phenomena or relations, serving as a basis for thoughtful discussion and subsequent collection of data or engagement in scientific experimentation in order to rule out alternative explanations and reach the truth. This short quiz does not count toward your grade in the class, and you can retake it an unlimited number of times. McGregor proposed that there were two types of managers: ones who assumed a negative view of their employees, also known as the Theory X managers, and others who assumed a positive view of workers, or the Theory Y managers. With the onslaught of B2B social media, and the break down of formal business approach, business is also being conducted more around Theory Y than old school Theory X. In the 1960s, social psychologist Douglas McGregor developed two contrasting theories that explained how managers' beliefs about what motivates their people can affect their management style.
Share your experience and knowledge in the comments box below. In technical or scientific use, Theory, principle, and law represent established, evidence-based explanations accounting for currently known facts or phenomena or for historically verified experience: the theory of relativity, the germ theory of disease, the law of supply and demand, the principle of conservation of energy. For Ouchi, Theory Z focused on increasing employee loyalty to the company by providing a job for life with a strong focus on the well-being of the employee, both on and off the job. Comparing Theory X and Theory Y Motivation Theory X assumes that people dislike work; they want to avoid it and do not want to take responsibility. If this happens, you may need to take back some control to ensure that everyone meets their team and organizational goals. In terms of the practice of management, the workplace of the early twenty-first century, with its emphasis on self-managed work teams and other forms of worker involvement programs, is generally consistent with the precepts of Theory Y.
If properly implemented, such an environment can increase and continually fuel motivation as employees work to satisfy their higher-level personal needs through their jobs. You can also find us on , and. Initially, they will focus on hobbies, committee and voluntary work, but eventually this could result in a hunt for another job. Managers are more authoritarian and actively intervene to get things done. The article is Written By Prachi Juneja and Reviewed By Management Study Guide Content Team. Yoko assumes that her employees are full of potential and that it is her role as a manager to help develop that potential so that the employee can work towards a common organizational goal.
Your rating is more than welcome or share this article via Social media! Unsatisfied lower needs will dominate unsatisfied higher needs and must be satisfied before the person can climb up the hierarchy. The Japanese had discovered something that was giving them the competitive edge. One of them is that employees take responsibility of their actions and work towards achieving the goals of the organization without much supervision. A manager's behavior and expectations are as contagious as the plague. Theory Y The higher-level needs of esteem and self-actualization are ongoing needs that, for most people, are never completely satisfied. Theory Y has become more popular among organizations.
How to Succeed in a Japanese Company. The required style in this model would be authoritarian and hard. The Self-Fulfilling Prophecies As the old saying goes, 'be careful what you wish for, because you just might get it. Managing: A Contemporary Introduction p. Authority is rarely delegated, and control remains firmly centralized.
Description of Theory Y Management influenced by this theory assumes that employees are ambitious, self-motivated and anxious to accept greater responsibility and exercise self-control, self-direction, autonomy and empowerment. She helps soothe the rough and tumble of running a business through education, information and coaching. Theory X Theory X managers tend to take a pessimistic view of their people, and assume that they are naturally unmotivated and dislike work. An outstanding title can increase tweets, Facebook Likes, and visitor traffic by 50% or more. Theory X gives importance to supervision, while theory Y stresses on rewards and recognition.
Both the theories, which are very different from each other, are used by managers to motivate their employees. The Assumptions of Douglas McGregor Much like a bomb, assumptions are a dangerous thing to make - just the slightest little mistake and you can end up blowing yourself up! This type of management style is more common than theory X. Theory X suggests that people work for extrinsic reasons -- in other words, money! Their employees are accustomed to coercion and control and will therefore not make any effort at all or bear responsibility. Employees are given an opportunity to develop themselves and put their capabilities to good use. In: The Farther Reaches of Human Nature. Influence A good manager will realize that leadership affects employee behaviour. The workers are more participative and try to solve problems on their own without relying on supervisors for guidance.
A hierarchical structure is needed, with narrow span of control at each level, for effective employee management. Use this quiz to check your understanding and decide whether to 1 study the previous section further or 2 move on to the next section. Unlike, decentralisation of authority is presumed in theory Y, which involves employees participation in management and decision-making. The result was Theory Z—a development beyond Theory X and Theory Y that blended the best of Eastern and Western management practices. Taken too literally, Theories X and Y seem to represent unrealistic extremes.
Managers who use this approach trust their people to take ownership of their work and do it effectively by themselves. The Human Side of the Enterprise. The theories concentrate on two various models of potential motivation that is implemented by the managers across human resources management, organizational communication, organizational development and organizational behavior. However, there should be formalized measures in place to assess work quality and performance. However, McGregor asserts that neither approach is appropriate, since the basic assumptions of Theory X are incorrect. Capabilities A democratic leadership style arises on the basis of Theory Y which allows the employees to have a greater say. Obviously, certain theories that start out as hypothetical eventually receive enough supportive data and scientific findings to become established, verified explanations.
Second, human behavior is purposeful and motivated by a need for satisfaction. According to this view, management must actively intervene to get things done. The soft approach results in a growing desire for greater reward in exchange for diminished work output. Therefore, the system of rewards and punishments works best for them. Next, the management directs the efforts of the employees and motivate and control their actions, to make them work as per the needs of the organisation. In contrast, in theory, Y, the assumption is that employees do not need much supervision for the completion of the task and also in the accomplishment of organisational objectives. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.