However, if the person, image or comparison group is too divergent from the evaluator, the tendency to narrow the range of comparability becomes stronger Festinger, 1954. A number of revisions, including new domains for comparison and motives, have also been made since 1954. People who use social networking sites tend to have more relationships, closer relationships, and more supportive relationships. In the book When Prophecy Fails, Festinger and colleagues shared their experiences of infiltrating a small cult who believed the end of the world was imminent. As per Buunk and Gibbons 2007 , autonomy in a situation increases the probability of assimilating with an upward reference point self-improvement while lack of autonomy increases the probability of downward comparison avoiding failure. To address this problem, Wood 1996 stresses the need for consistency between definitions and measures and the need to be wary of alternative interpretations. Self-evaluation occurs when someone looks for positive traits in himself based on the best person he compares himself with.
The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 52 3 , 384. Review of General Psychology 7 2 : 115-149. The type of comparison and the specific person or group chosen define whether an individual is likely to perceive himself or herself or the group as being unfairly treated. Conflict, decision, and dissonance Vol. Social media has experienced an exponential rise in popularity over the last decade, but its effects on mental health are still under investigation.
A classic dissonance experiment by Aronson and Mills 1959 demonstrates the basic idea. Further, people tend to seek companionship with people who share their values, which is why friends and romantic partners often share similar belief systems. Arrowood 1986 describes several forms of nonobjective ability information used in social comparison studies, for example, the presentation of two ratings the evaluator's and that of an unidentified other , the display of a distribution of ratings that includes the evaluator's, and the presentation of the evaluator's rating along with the identifying characteristics of potential comparison others and their ratings. Insofar as information presentation stimulates the comparison process, its effects may depend on the motivations that drive the comparison. Festinger also posited a human drive to self-evaluate because accurate self-evaluation should be adaptive.
Festinger believed that we engage in this comparison process as a way of establishing a benchmark by which we can make accurate evaluations of ourselves. Gibbons 1997 Health, Coping, and Well-Being: Perspectives from Social Comparison Theory. For example, Chafel 1988 concludes that during childhood, achievement identities reflect first autonomous self-generated norms, then social comparison norms, and finally an integration of the two. She might initially compare her abilities to the other members of the clarinet section, particularly noting those who are better than her as well as those who are worse. Almost fifty years after its inception, its contribution to numerous substantive areas appears to be unrivaled Suls and Wills 1991. Suls 1977 outlines the first twenty years of social comparison research, beginning with its inception in 1954 by the psychologist Festinger and then describing its theoretical decline while applications to affiliation Schachter 1959 , emotions Schachter and Singer 1962 , and justice Adams 1965 emerged; its momentary revival in a 1966 issue of the Journal of Experimental ; and its second, more enduring revival in 1977 in the form of a landmark volume of collected essays Suls and Miller, 1977.
Results Participants in the 'severe embarrassment' condition gave the most positive rating. Brickman, Philip, and Ronnie J. Also, people are less attracted to situations where others are divergentfrom them compared to situations where others are more like them in opinionsand abilities. We will look at the main findings to have emerged from each area. The social comparison explanation of polarization states that insofar as people want their own opinions to remain distinct from those of others, exposure to others' opinions stimulates shifts in stances to retain that uniqueness. By derogating the target or causing harm to him, this person generates a situation in which the target is worse off than him, therefore giving him the chance to make a downward comparison.
After reading the reports about the various products, individuals rated the products again. Almost all of the participants agreed to walk into the waiting room and persuade the confederate that the boring experiment would be fun. Bylsma 1991 Responses to Upward and Downward Social Comparisons: The Impact of Esteem-Relevance and Perceived Control. Future research should examine conditions affecting the motivations that underlie social comparison processes. The subjects were required to fill a questionnaire including three scales. That tailoring of evaluations coincides with other evidence that challenges Festinger's assumption that individuals are rational and accurate in information processing. A large body of research examines choice shift or group polarization, in which the group voices a more extreme opinion than would be expected on the basis of initial individual opinions see Myers and Lamm 1976.
In abilitiesthere can be a status stratification. To reduce this dissonance, we are motivated to try to think that the task turned out well. These negative reactions stem from the belief that opinion discrepancy means that an individual's opinions are incorrect. Ranking on various characteristics often determines survival and access to resources that lead to reproductive success. Computers in Human Behavior, 59, 155-164. Second, people first attempt to make these evaluations through objective, nonsocial means, but if those means are unavailable, they are likely to compare themselves with others. That drive increases with the importance of the ability or opinion, its relevance to immediate behavior, the relevance of the group to the ability or opinion, and the individual's attraction to the group.
In effect, low-esteem individuals are seizing a safe form of self-enhancement. In other words, people perceive themselves more favorably than they perceive others. In this type of comparison, people want to believe themselves to be one of the elite, and make comparisons showing the similarities in themselves and the comparison group. Their approach applies Kelley's 1973 attributional concepts of discounting and augmentation see Howard in this volume to assess the certainty of one's standing on an ability or opinion. Disadvantaged in-group members harmed and saw as more homogeneous a disadvantaged out-group whose performance was similar to or better than that of the in-group. The effect of severity of initiation on liking for a group. Contribution to Psychology Festinger developed several key psychological.