The Moderates used petitions, resolutions, meetings, leaflets and pamphlets, memorandum and delegations to present their demands. He was the first Indian to contest the election for the British House of Commons although he lost the election. Extremist also realised that the use of force was not prudent, because India was peace loving and disarmed nation. Trouble broke out over the selection of the new president of the Congress between the moderate and the radical sections of the party. In fact, it had been growing slowly since the revolt of 1857, but was invisible. He was keen on supporting the war effort of the Government but was equally in favour of continuing national agitation.
Ideological inspiration was Indian History, Cultural heritage, national education and Hindu traditional symbols. The demands were moderate because the leaders believed in piecemeal reforms and subscribed to the philosophy of gradualism They followed the method of prayer, petition, persuation, representation and deputation in order to convince the government about the justness of their demands. The Growth of Militant Nationalism — The Extremist Era 1905-1919 : The new leadership of the Congress was opposed to the soft policies of the moderates. A number of meetings were organised in Bengal and at other places against the partition of Bengal. As the extremist were in a minority they left the Congress.
They made a modest beginning in this direction by promoting close contacts and friendly relations among the people from different parts of the country. In spite of their many failures they laid strong foundations for the national movement to grow upon and they deserve a high place among the makers of modern India. This feeling greatly helped in the rise of extremism. They involved lower middle class people also. They were called moderates because they adopted peaceful and constitutional means to achieve their demands. Curzon paid no need to a petition signed by thousands of Indian people.
They thought it was only the bureaucracy which stood between the people and their rights. There were total 72 members in the first session of. . Webb He was an Irish member of the British Parliament 1895 — Poona — Surendranath Banerjee 1896 — Calcutta — M. So moderates wanted to propose the name of Dr. They were greatly dissatisfied with the measures taken by the Government to deal with the situation. He attacked the British through his weeklies The Mahratta and the Kesari.
He played an important role in the Swadeshi Movement. Swadeshi was another important aspect of extremist movement. Upon the death of his first wife, his reform-minded friends expected him to marry and thereby rescue a widow. Both were responsible for the passing of this Act. The moderates also succeeded to create democratic temper among the people. British troops were brought in to deal with the emergency and harsh measures were employed including forced entry into private houses, examination of occupants, evacuation to hospitals and segregation camps, removing and destroying personal possessions, and preventing patients from entering or leaving the city.
They advocated the Swadeshi movement involving the boycott of all imported items and the use of Indian-made goods in 1907 during the anti-Partition agitation in Bengal which began in 1905. It was evident in the presidential address of Gokhale at the Banaras session in 1905, where he condemned the partition of Bengal and supported the Swadeshi movement. Recognition of the True Nature of British Rule. Dutt, Subramaniyan Iyer etc also gave the same reasons for the suffering of the Indian masses. He was released when no evidence was provided. The Lucknow Pact 1916 : During the 1916 Congress session at Lucknow two major events occurred.
Mahadev Govind Ranade was a big supporter of industrialisation and democracy. It would stop the drainage of money, which was annually expatriated through the payment of salary and pension of the European officers. That is why despite their high idealism, they failed to create a solid mass base for their movement. The second state 1905-18 witnessed the emergence of a new and younger group within the Indian National Congress which was sharply critical of the ideology and methods of the old leadership. This helped in generating anti-imperialist sentiments among the public. The moderates wanted to pass resolution welcoming the Royal party.
In 1907, the annual session of the Congress Party was held at Surat, Gujarat. Fourthly, the ill-treatment meted out to Indians in foreign countries, especially South Africa, also gave fillip to the extremist movement. Even Gokhale criticised the Government for this act. Rajendra Prasad 1935 — No session — Continuation of Dr. Moderates then held a secret meeting and decided to abdicate extremists. The launch of the Home Rule Movement in 1916 by Tilak and Annie Besant furthered the spirit of freedom among the people in India. This act was a symbol of the Indians refusal to live under the British-made laws and also under the British rule.
This led the government to reverse its policy towards the congress, Dufferin ridiculed it as representing only a microscopic minority of the people. Many members of Society were also against Gandhi joining it. The split between the two came at the Surat session of the National Congress in December, 1907. Campaign for General Administrative Reforms 4. Satendra Nath Banerjee was a good orator, propagandist. Pherozeshah Mehta was nominated to the Bombay Legislative Council in 1887 and in 1893 a member of the Imperial Legislative Council.