The party contested the 1934 elections to the central legislature and won 12 seats. Processions and meetings were held, speeches delivered and discussions held on various economic, social and political questions. Hume, a retired civil servant of India played a very crucial role along with other early nationalist leaders like Naoroji, Ranade, Banerjee and others. The Indian National Congress was a movement started in 1885 by a Britain in India called A. The birth of the Indian National Congress was not a sudden event or a historical accident but the result of a gradual effort of a number of educated Indians of Bengal and other regions who were very much dissatisfied and disgusted by the exploitative nature of the alien British rule. But they did carry out an ideological struggle against them.
The arousal, training, organization and consolidation of public opinion was seen as a major task by the Congress leaders. Are the interests of the rulers and the ruled in harmony, or does a basic contradiction exist between the two? Yet, work done in them by the nationalists helped the growth of the national movement. During its first several decades, the Congress Party passed fairly moderate reform resolutions, though many within the organization were becoming radicalized by the increased poverty that accompanied British imperialism. The trends have changed as now the IndianNational Congress adopts economically liberal policies on th … e wayit presents its economic agenda. The Congress leaders recognized that objective historical forces were bringing the Indian people together. Thus while he started educating the Muslims in Western education on the one hand, he kept them aloof from the national movement of the Congress on the other.
The nationalist ideas behind the revolt of 1857, according to the extremists, were Swadharma and Swaraj. In November, however, he was allowed to return when the viceroy, Lord Minto, decided that there was insufficient evidence. Ayerst were shot and killed by the Chapekar brothers. They presented their demands to the Governments through resolutions, petitions, meetings, etc. Aims of the Congress were, however, fundamental constitutional changes, expansion of the central and the local Councils, larger proportion of elected members, enlargement of the powers and functions of the legislative Councils, substitution of irresponsible government by responsible government run by the representatives of the people.
Extremist slogan of Swaraj was first introduced by Arya Samaj of dayannada Sarswati. Lacking support of the masses, the early nationalists could not adopt a militant political position. Considering the size of the Indian subcontinent, there were very few political persons in the early 1880s and the tradition of open opposition to the rulers was not yet firmly entrenched. It will, no doubt, be given to our countrymen of future generations to serve India by their successes; we, of the present generation, must be content to serve her mainly by our failures. But the critics have missed out the most important part of their activity — that all of it led to politics, to the politicization of the people. By using these tools of colonial modern public life, they tried to prepare a convincing logical case aimed at persuading the liberal political opinion in England in favour of granting self-government to India. He was imprisoned by the British for writing articles against British rule in India.
He stated that the main purpose of the Congress was to represent the views of the Indians to the ruling authorities. But the real answer lies in the conditions of the time. After his death, she continued his social and educational reform work. I congratulate Mrs Sonia,Rahul,Priyanka and singh for their victory in this election and god bless. History will judge the extent of the success or failure of the early national movement not by an abstract, ahistorical standard but by the extent to which it was able to attain the basic objectives it had laid down for itself. B: Calcutta was the hotbed of revolutionaries. The Early Nationalists wanted to convey their feelings to the government, so as to gradually bring the authorities around to their viewpoint.
Bhikaiji Rustom Cama attended the International Socialist Conference in Stuttgart, Germany, where she described the devastating effects of a famine that had struck the Indian subcontinent. Liberal Englishmen both in India and England sympathised with the Indian aspirations. Removal of poverty by the rapid development of agriculture and modern industries. Though the Bill was not extreme, only raising the age of consent from ten to twelve, Tilak took issue with it; he did not object per se to the idea of moving towards the elimination of child marriage, but rather to the idea of British interference with Hindu tradition. Vernacular Press Act, 1878 , and into demand the Following : a. This is regarded as the first tangible result of the Congress movement.
Through the Society as well as the Congress and other legislative bodies he served in, Gokhale campaigned for Indian self-rule and also social reform. They worked on a two-pronged methodology: one to create a strong public opinion to arouse consciousness and national spirit and then to educate and unite people on common political questions and two, to persuade the British Government and British public opinion to introduce reforms in India on the lines laid out by the nationalists. The efforts of the Early Nationalists also led to the implementation of various social reforms such as the appointment of a Public Service Commission. In 1890, it was decided to hold a session of the Indian National Congress in London in 1892, but owing to the British elections of 1891 the proposal was postponed and never revived later. Hume, if the founders of the Congress were such capable and patriotic men of high character, why did they need Hume to act as the chief organizer of the Congress? Instead they aimed at winning freedom through a gradual process. In this way, the moderate politicians generated anger against British rule, though because of their own weaknesses, they themselves could not convert it into an effective agitation for its overthrow.
It was the first organized expression of Indian nationalism on an all-India scale. Lord Dufferin was sympathetic in this regard. Their political and economic programmes established the idea that India must be ruled in the interest of the Indians. He spent his major part in England where he got elected in the British House Commons and formed a powerful Indian lobby in the House of Commons. It originated from the concepts of nationalism and right of self-determination initiated by the French Revolution, the socio-religious reform movement, the spread of western education and the reaction of Indians to British Raj.
Subramaniya Iyer and Surendranath Banerjea one year later cooperated with Hume because they did not want to arouse official hostility at such an early stage of their work. Courageous and committed persons like Dadabhai Naoroji, Justice Ranade, Pherozeshah Mehta, G. Young members advocated the adoption of European revolutionary methods to counter British imperialism while mainstream Early Nationalists remained loyal to the crown, with their desire to regain self-government lacking conviction. In 1884 Hume, in consultation with the Indian leaders, laid the foundations of Indian National Union but it was postponed due to an outbreak of plague in. They had to develop their own anti-colonial ideology on the basis of a concrete study of the reality and of their own practice. For more videos, subscribe to Congress Party channel:.