Risk of human exposure to arsenic and other toxic elements from geophagy: trace element analysis of baked clay using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Geophagy: adaptive or aberrant behavior. If their pica is a result of obtaining a favorite item, a strategy may be used where the person is able to receive the item or activity without eating inedible items. For more information, please see a recent review published in the journal Research in Developmental Disabilities. As a first step, treatment should replace missing nutrients if applicable and address any other health issues. For instance, a 12 year old eating dirt would generally be considered inappropriate, while it would be appropriate for a 5 year old.
Anorexia nervosa is likely the most well-known eating disorder. However, most include the severe restriction of food, food binges or inappropriate purging behaviors like vomiting or over-exercising. In addition to poisoning, there is also a much greater risk of or tearing in the. Knowing what your child is eating will help inform the team to which items your child may be attracted. Chicago: American Dietetic Association, 2002. In some cases, surgery may be required to remove metal objects from the patient's digestive tract or to repair tissue injuries.
Pica, iron deficiency, and a number of other physiological disturbances in humans have been associated with decreased activity of the dopamine system in the. Instead, we want to gather information about the behavior and analyze what we find. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2002. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Older children tend to ingest animal droppings, sand, insects, leaves, pebbles, and cigarette butts. That said, culturally accepted thin ideals are very present in many areas of the world.
Much of the research on pica has focused on its occurrence in those who have an intellectual disability. The practice of consuming Kaolin rocks was thereafter studied scientifically, the results of which led to the subsequent pharmaceutical commercialization of Kaolinite, the clay mineral contained in Kaolin. Treatment of pica through multiple analyses of its reinforcing functions. Possible alternative behaviors that can be rewarded are discarding small non-food items the child finds or engaging in other incompatible behaviors. Pica Iron Deficiency As mentioned above, one of the causes of pica is a nutrient deficiency, with iron the most common. However, individuals with bulimia usually maintain a relatively normal weight, rather than becoming underweight.
Some of things that may contribute to a person developing pica are being iron deficient or having other deficiencies such as zinc. This can cause a stroke or heart attack. Laboratory studies may be used to assess these complications. Issues in the management of challenging behaviours of adults with autism spectrum disorder. Children with mental retardation and autism are affected more frequently than children without these conditions. Picture Credit Image released under Creative Commons License.
American Journal of Mental Deficiency. The cause must be treated, not the symptom. This behavior must be inappropriate for the child's stage of development. Over time, individuals living with it may experience the thinning of their bones, infertility, brittle hair and nails and the growth of a layer of fine hair all over their body. In fact, as much as 13% of youth may experience at least one eating disorder by the age of 20.
Moreover, during a binge, the person usually feels that they cannot stop eating or control how much they are eating. Pica is most commonly seen in , small children, and those with such as. The nature and amount of the ingested substance determine the medical sequelae. Lead has neurologic, hematologic, endocrine, cardiovascular, and renal effects. In the latter case, the disorder can lead to serious consequences, such as lead poisoning. Sontag C, Kettaneh A, Fain O, et al.
However if they have underlying psychological problems they can be treated for that in addition to counseling or therapy. Rumination disorder is another newly recognized eating disorder. However, contrary to the two previous disorders, people with binge eating disorder do not restrict calories or use purging behaviors such as vomiting or excessive exercise to compensate for their binges. Once eaten, they can damage the gastrointestinal tract, and that can result in bowel problems, ulcerations, perforations, or obstructions, says Lugerner. In some cultures, eating clay is an accepted behavior. Whether the iron deficiency prompted the eating of clay or the inhibition of iron absorption caused by the ingestion of clay produced the iron deficiency is not known. Eating disorders are a range of conditions expressed through abnormal or disturbed eating habits.
But either way this disorder can be very dangerous to an individual because their body may not be able to digest the items properly, or they may become poisoned by some of the toxins found inside them. Other symptoms may include digestive distress, ulcerations, nutrient defense, constipation, bowl blockages and more, all of which are related to the ingestion of these substances. Providers should ask about pica behavior or unusual cravings in certain high-risk groups: pregnant women, particularly women from the southern United States, immigrants or refugees, and children and adults with autism or other developmental disabilities. It is particularly important to remove any objects made of lead fishing weights, lead shot, pieces of printer's type, etc. Although several theories have been proposed by experts for causes of pica in animals, there is insufficient evidence to prove or disprove any of them. Thank you for your comment. I really have a bad craving for Argo Cornstarch.