A persona simply helps a marketer get a clearer picture of who will be buying his product. When a reference group is powerful, and regarded as credible and trustworthy, there is greater probability of it being able to influence people. A group is defined as two or more individuals who share a set of norms, values, or beliefs and interact to accomplish individual or mutual goals. By using such products I am therefore more likely to receive social approval from my peers, and so it could be argued that the utilitarian influence of my informal reference group serves to enhance the value-expressive influence of my aspirational reference group. The foundation of values and beliefs we acquire throughout our lives originates from our first home. An employer rewards an employee with money and status, family rewards the child with praise and approval. When a person can find a group that they can relate to it often gives them a feeling of patronage which can assist in profit and sales.
They can be our parents or siblings too who can in any form provide us the information about the product. Since different cultures have different values, they will have different buying habits. When a person belongs to a group by virtue of membership or even if he merely qualifies for a membership to that group, it is called a membership group. However, there is a variance of age groups as well as ethnicity. They might be professionals, your collogues, your seniors at work or your acquaintance at club, etc. A study reveals that consumers seek information from those whose view is similar to themselves. As a result, by exposing these insecurities, my reference group may be influencing my purchasing behavior by stimulating my own desire to hide or conceal my feelings of inadequacy via an act of conformity.
Sometimes that means trying to imitate a celebrity or be like our peers. Compliance is the form of group influence when an individual or individuals on the surface seem to agree with others when in actuality they are keeping their differences to themselves. Thus, reference groups influence both the consumer's need for the product in general as well as the choice of brand. Generally, 20% of marketing messages produce 80% of campaigns results. However, the individual learns fashion, attitude or style from his friends. They also contemplate new products and services. Hairstylists serve as opinion leaders for hair-care products.
Reference groups form part of group dynamic. Someindividuals have a strong sense of identification with a group because they derive strong material or psychological benefit by being associated with that group. For example, Nike could assume that many subscribers to Runner's World serve as opinion leaders for jogging and running shoes. Park et al 2010, p. On the internet, people are free to express their thoughts. Source Initiated: 2 way influence I showed my expensive set of crockery to Mohan and he now plans to buy one for himself.
If you know who your customers are and who they want to be, you stand a much better chance of converting more of your audience into loyal customers. Another way advertisers convey comparative influence is to use a celebrity as a referent. An opinion leader for infants foods may not be the opinion leader for kitchenware, etc. We, as humans do a lot to try to impress others. Use of computers and Internets has paved the way for the emergence of a new type of group — virtual groups or communities.
The influence children make to consumer buying is massive and the marketers who came up with the idea for cuddly toys have used them well. This is a group that people do not want to belong to. We have reference groups for a few reasons. Kelly Bruning Strayer University Abstract This paper talks about the influence of reference groups on consumer behavior. The group may feel more confident with collective decisions.
A reference group is that group whose presumed perspectives or values are being used by an individual as the basis for his or her current behavior. If their experiences do not meet expectations then there is cause for concern, and the marketer must take relevant steps to redress their complaints. They visit special interest websites often with chat rooms. Culture can be further divided into subcultures. They are used then to communicate product features and performance. This group is of least interest to the marketer. Then the married couple transition to Full Nest stages, where the family has dependent children living at home.
Secondary Groups Secondary reference groups are usually formal and they speak less frequently. A consumption subculture is a distinctive subgroup of society that self-selects on the basis of a shared commitment to a particular product class, brand, or consumption activity. I also do not think that there is a big difference between the quality or comfort of designer brands and less expensive unknown brands. In my case however, solitary embarrassment is not enough to influence the purchase of my home clothes, thereby suggesting that the influence of my informal reference group is the strongest for clothes that I wear publically, and weakest for clothes that I wear privately Bearden and Etzel 1982, p. It's running time is 130 minutes and is rated R for language The cast includes Tom Cruise Lt. Conversely, those of us who either can't or choose not to embrace and express the norms of reference groups that are expected of us might be seen as outcasts, criminals, or in other cases, revolutionaries or trendsetters.
When a new situation appears or the conditions change, the individuals may report themselves to the rules of another group which becomes the reference group for the given situation. For ex- ample- in ads like shampoo, car, floor cleaner etc. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23, pp. Consumer socialization is the process by which consumers acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to operate in the marketplace. You like playing the violin, and your favorite concert violinist endorses a particular violin produced by a particular manufacturer.
Combating Consumer Misbehavior Although fairly expensive to do, many retailers have begun fighting consumer misbehavior. One such individual that I particularly admire is David Beckham. . Such groups may be classified as being formal e. From a marketing perspective, reference groups are groups that serve as frames of reference for individuals in their purchase or consumption decisions. Consumers talk to each other about their experiences and performance of the product.