The friction between sand particle is due to sliding and rolling friction and interlocking action. F is called the Shearing Force at the section A-A. Neither put heavy loads first nor over load the beam. A mechanism is provided which can apply and calculate the force throughout the beam. The method of solving the problem is to use influence lines. All of these forces cancel each other out except aO along qp and Od along te, and these two forces must be in equilibrium with.
Check the inner dimension of the soil container. The opposite of sagging is called hogging. At the roller end a chord is attached which is connected further to spring balance. To calculate shear force and moment using influence line 3. The complete diagrams are shown.
A Distributed load is one which is spread in some manner over the length, or a significant length, of the beam. Least count of dial gauge. Record carefully all the readings. These graphs are called shear and moment diagrams. Horizontal structural member used to support horizontal loads such as floors, roofs, and decks.
Dial gauge Reading Initial reading div. S Description: Cables are frequently used to support loads over large spans such as cable stayed for suspension bridges, cable car systems and stadium roof. The only force in a cable is direct tension. Objective: The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate the bending of a bean when loaded at the center of its length and examine its deflection when positioned in two different ways, when the flat side of the beam is support and when the thin side is supported. . The volume change in sandy soil is a complex phenomenon depending on gradation, particle shape, state and type of packing, orientation of principal planes, principal stress ratio, stress history, magnitude of minor principal stress, type of apparatus, test procedure, method of preparing specimen etc.
They are too flexible to carry any moment. So recording the procedure in our lab book is important. As thinner specimens are used in shear box, they facilitate drainage of pore water from a saturated sample in less time. Within a beam, the shear force at any section is basically the algebraic sum of the lateral forces acting on either side of the section. Similarly, can be replaced by forces represented by bO along rq and Oc along rs, by cO along sr and Od along st etc. Discussion 1 2 3 4 5 F. The slope of the lines is equal to the shearing force between the loading points.
The load hangers can be positioned accurately along each beams length by using the graduated scales attached to the side of the beams. Procedure 1 2 3 4 5 D. Place the soil in smooth layers approximately 10 mm thick. The spring balance records the horizontal reaction, for the measurement of slope and deflection. Length 100 cm A Dial Gauge 25 mm Beam Size 2.
It should be supported on two knife edge supports 70cm apart with a 30cm overhang on one side. A dial gauge with 25mm travel with a magnetic base may be supplied with the apparatus. In practice, it is not usually possible to obtain perfect fixing and the fixing moment applied will be related to the angular movement of the support. A two piece square shear box is one type of soil container used. Theoretical calculation of shear force show that there is a direct relation between load and shear force but the experimental shear force show some errors which can be due to personal error or faulty apparatus. Many road bridges are constructed from beam, and as such have to be designed to carry a knife edge load, or a string of wheel loads, or a uniformly distributed load, or perhaps the worst combination of all three.
Free body diagram of the apparatus is shown below. Little different between the values is due to human error which cannot be minimize due to the human capabilities limitation. The concept of bending moment is very important in engineering particularly in civil and mechanical engineering and physics. It is good practice to see the balance level of the beam from a certain distance. Shear stress arises from the force vector component parallel to the cross section. Normal stress, on the other hand, arises from the force vector component perpendicular or antiparallel to the material cross section on which it acts. The apparatus has a mechanism which is used to apply force on the beam and it is this mechanism which also prevents the overloading on beam which can collapse the beam.