The University of Minnesota press published his volume, Red Scare: A Study in National Hysteria, 1919—1920, in 1955. University of South Carolina Press. What happened during the McCarthy era certainly raises this possibility: American philosophy became abstract and apolitical at the same time that it came under increased political scrutiny. The Communist party, already damaged by internal problems, dwindled into insignificance and all the organizations associated with it disappeared. However, the McCarran Act had no real effect beyond legal harassment. So too, however, was repression in the name of catching spies. Oppenheimer had received a top-secret clearance in 1947, but was denied clearance in the harsher climate of 1954.
We will not walk in fear, one of another. Both of these subjects in American history share a common factor; it is a mass chaos shared by the common people. Boots of Leather, Slippers of Gold. On Communist Party membership, see , in Revelations from the Russian Archives, Library of Congress. On October 20, 1953, Murrow's show aired an episode about the dismissal of , a former reserve Air Force lieutenant who was accused of associating with Communists. Propagating the Red Scare, the fear of communist subversion, McCarthy charged individuals in the federal government, Hollywood and general public as being supporters of communism. Initial debates centered on assessing the causes of, or motivations behind, the anticommunist furor.
Belknap, The Supreme Court under Earl Warren, 1953—1969 Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2005 ; Arthur J. Most disturbing, both Phillips and Parry were punished by their own institutions for actions that were perfectly legal: namely, belonging to a political party and invoking the Fifth Amendment. Third, and finally, the McCarthy era serves as a warning when we consider the present state of philosophy in America. Through the federal loyalty program, conservative anticommunists exploited public fears of espionage to block policy initiatives that impinged on private-sector prerogatives. That same month the U. McCarthy countered by accusing the Army of attempting to terminate his investigations into the service through coercion. For example, since the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, Americans have expressed a gamut of sentiments ranging from hysteria to patriotic triumphalism — but there has been little philosophical discussion of the basis or merits of these sentiments.
Mightier Than the Sword: How the News Media Have Shaped American History. McCarthy and his ways challenged the Bill of Rights. The Committee soon focused on Communism, beginning with an investigation into Communists in the in 1938. DuBois, for his Marxist politics. Other authors who have drawn on a comparison between current and McCarthyism include , , and. Between 1949 and 1954, a total of 109 investigations were carried out by these and other committees of Congress. While he may not have caused genocide or murdered a prophet, he was able to whip up hysteria in America in the early 1950s.
One focus of popular McCarthyism concerned the provision of services, particularly , care services and , all of which were denounced by some to be communist plots to poison or brainwash the American people. However, in the context of the highly politicised Cold War environment, homosexuality became framed as a dangerous, contagious social disease that posed a potential threat to state security. They're after all of us! Mitchell Palmer charged that these events were evidence of a revolutionary conspiracy. Search for the American right wing: An analysis of the social science record, 1955-1987 Princeton University Press, 2015. The organization soon took up the fight against Jim Crow restrictions in the railroad union and led a successful boycott that forced New York City hotels to hire more Blacks. McCarthyism not only destroyed the lives and careers of many Americans but also the innocent image of the country. Union support for Black struggles withered in the right-wing atmosphere.
One of the most common causes of suspicion was membership in the , a left-leaning organization that offered lectures on literature, classical music concerts and discounts on books. McCarthy, a Republican from Wisconsin. Many people suffered loss of employment or destruction of their careers; some were imprisoned. But for the vast majority, both the potential for them to do harm to the nation and the nature of their communist affiliation were tenuous. In Britain, confessed to committing espionage on behalf of the Soviet Union while working on the at during the War. Among those few were comedian , and journalist , whose strong criticisms of McCarthy are often cited as playing an important role in his eventual removal from power.
However, the McCarthy era should also lead us to examine a second metaphilosophical assumption. Lowe defined vicious intellectualism as an over-dependence on definitions as guides to behavior. These two cases illustrate a wider phenomenon and point to a general lesson. It is the use of the big lie and the unfounded accusation against any citizen in the name of Americanism or security. The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents. He was given chairmanship of the powerful Committee on Government Operations, as well as of the permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. Diverse strikes across the nation coincided with a series of mail bombings by anarchists.
Representing the other end of the political spectrum, 1956's Storm Center starred Bette Davis as a heroic small-town librarian who refused to pull a communist book off the shelves, even though it meant she lost her job and was herself falsely branded a communist. The play focused on the fact that once accused, a person had little chance of exoneration, given the irrational and circular reasoning of both the courts and the public. Many others were called to testify before the House of Representatives Committee on Un-American Activities. The range of concerns of American philosophy contracted quite severely as positivism became dominant in American philosophy departments. The left liberal political coalition that might have supported health reforms and similar projects was torn apart by the anti-Communist crusade. The rich papers of are at Duke University. The McCarthy allegations needed investigating, and a subcommittee of the Foreign Relations Committee, under respected conservative Democratic Senator Millard Tydings, was formed to look into the allegations.