The second layer, the dermis, is thicker and more elastic and is home to hair follicles and glands, which are discussed below. Mole Moles are an excessive growth of melanocytes. Career Connection Dermatologist Have you ever had a skin rash that did not respond to over-the-counter creams, or a mole that you were concerned about? The stratum corneum is the outer layer of the epidermis composed of dead skin cells that flake away. Prefixes Definition a-, an- no, not, without, away aut- self brady- slow dia- apart, through end-, endo- within, inside exo- outside of, without epi- above hyper- excessive hypo- insufficient inter- between intra- middle media- medium medial- situated or pertaining to the middle medi- middle medio- within normo- normal per- through peri- around physio-, physi- related to nature or physiology poly- many pro- before, for, in front of, from, in behalf of, on account of re- back, again retro- behind, back, backward sub- under, below, beneath, in small quantity, less than normal syn-, sy-, syl-, sym- union or association tachy- fast trans- across, through, beyond, over ultra- excess Review of Suffixes Below are some suffixes that can be used for the medical terminology of most systems. Merkel disks in the epidermis connect to nerve cells in the dermis to detect shapes and textures of objects contacting the skin. It is a complex organ that serves primarily a protective function.
It also stores fat as an energy supply for the body. Desiccare means to dry up. Ecchymosis Ecchymosis is an area of bluish discoloration on the skin caused by the spilling of blood into the subcutaneous tissue caused by some type of trauma to the area. Purpura is a bleeding disorder that is due to hemorrhage into the tissue of the skin which causes ecchymosis or petechiae. Acid mantle—low pH selects against bacteria b. Fissure Fiss- means cleft or split.
In contrast, scars that result from acne and chickenpox have a sunken appearance and are called atrophic scars. Cutaneous means pertaining to the skin. The hypodermis, with its fat stores, loses structure due to the reduction and redistribution of fat, which in turn contributes to the thinning and sagging of skin. Melanoma Melan o pertains to melanocytes. The thickness of the subcutaneous layer is different from person to person. Jaundice—liver disorder bile pigments in blood and deposited in body tissue d. Hypodermis superficial fascia —not skin; protective; adipose and loose connective tissue A.
Merkel cells, seen scattered in the stratum basale, are also touch receptors. A nodule is a small node-like structure that is solid and elevated. Stratum granulosum—thick; 3-5 cell layers; keratinocytes are modified i. Arise in stratum basale ii. Visit a dermatologist once in a while.
Vitiligo Vitiligo is a skin disease of unknown caused that is benign and characterized by irregular patches of skin that lack pigment. If the temperature of the skin drops too much such as environmental temperatures below freezing , the conservation of body core heat can result in the skin actually freezing, a condition called frostbite. Connective tissue with blood vessels ii. Throughout the dermis there are many free nerve endings that are simply neurons with their dendrites spread throughout the dermis. It provides a way for us to recognizeeach other, as well.
You will find a list of word roots, and a few additional suffixes and prefixes related to the integumentary system. Its thickened proximal area, the nail matrix, is responsible for nail growth. A: Cornified cells, the shingle-like dead cell remnants, completely filled with keratin, are referred to as cornified or horny cells. This article covers the medical terminology of the integumentary system. The arrector pili form goose bumps by contracting to move the hair follicle and lifting the hair shaft upright from the surface of the skin. Keratinocytes—produce keratin; primary cell of epidermis i. B: Fibroblasts are cells that produce and deposit collagen and other elements of the dermis as required for growth or to repair wounds.
Although commonly referred to as skin, it also includes blood vessels, nerves and sensory receptors, sweat and oil glands, other derivatives such as hair and nails. Other cells in the skin, such as melanocytes and dendritic cells, also become less active, leading to a paler skin tone and lowered immunity. The cutaneous glands are all exocrine glands that release their secretions to the skin surface via ducts and they fall into two groups: sebaceous glands and sweat glands. The thick proximal nail fold is commonly called the cuticle. The density of these sensory receptors in the skin varies throughout the body, resulting in some regions of the body being more sensitive to touch, temperature, or pain than other regions. Ceruminous Glands Ceruminous glands are special exocrine glands found only in the dermis of the ear canals. Eye lashes filter out harmful particles.
Like most cancers, basal cell carcinomas respond best to treatment when caught early. Large; ducts empty into hair follicle ii. Cyanosis Cyan o means blue. The digestion of apocrine sweat by bacteria produces body odor. Recall that sweat glands, accessory structures to the skin, secrete water, salt, and other substances to cool the body when it becomes warm. Melanomas typically present as large brown or black patches with uneven borders and a raised surface. They work in conjunction with other cells to fight foreign bodies as part of the body's immune defense system.
Melanin—ranges in color from yellow to redish-brown to black i. Basal cell carcinomas start in the stratum basale and usually spread along this boundary. The reticular layer also contains blood vessels to support the skin cells and nerve tissue to sense pressure and pain in the skin. If this is done, the burn will heal within several weeks. Generally, skin, especially on the face and hands, starts to display the first noticeable signs of aging, as it loses its elasticity over time.