Said Commission shall in like manner investigate any complaint forwarded by the railroad commissioner or railroad commission of any State or Territory, at the request of such commissioner or commission, and may institute any inquiry on its own motion in the same manner and to the same effect as though complaint had been made. The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 24 Stat. The efforts of the Grange were well coordinated, and, with the help of newspapers, its efforts began to succeed. Because of its uniqueness, but also because the act that created it was vague in many areas, its precise powers and character remained unclear. In 1876 the Supreme Court case of Munn v. Key Players Cooley, Thomas McIntyre 1824-1898 : Cooley turned to the practice of law after a successful career as a city clerk, newspaper editor, and circuit court commissioner.
The Protect Interstate Commerce Act would wipe out all of those local laws, which were constructed due to the unique needs of each state. The In the nineteenth century, the U. The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 was Congress's attempt to answer this question. Railroad owners realized their dominance in transportation. The Interstate Commerce Act was passed as a result of public concern with the growing power and wealth of corporations, particularly railroads, during the late nineteenth century. Nation's Business, 84 3 , 32.
The statute remains the bastion of regulatory guidance for the transportation and freight industries and for any other entity acting as a , shipper or shipper's exclusive agent, or carrier. Louis and Pacific Railway v. That any person, firm, corporation, or association, or any mercantile, agricultural, or manufacturing society, or any body politic or municipal organization complaining of anything done or omitted to be done by any common carrier subject to the provisions of this act in contravention of the provisions thereof, may apply to said Commission by petition, which shall briefly state the facts; whereupon a statement of the charges thus made shall be forwarded by the Commission to such common carrier, who shall be called upon to satisfy the complaint or to answer the same in writing within a reasonable time, to be specified by the Commission. The first commission chairman was Thomas Cooley, a law professor and Michigan Supreme Court justice. That the Commission hereby created shall have authority to inquire into the management of the business of all common carriers subject to the provisions of this act, and shall keep itself informed as to the manner and method in which the same is conducted, and shall have the right to obtain from such common carriers full and complete information necessary to enable the Commission to perform the duties and carry out the objects for which it was created; and for the purposes of this act the Commission shall have power to require the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of all books, papers, tariffs, contracts, agreements, and documents relating to any matter under investigation, and to that end may invoke the aid of any court of the United States in requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of books, papers, and documents under the Provisions of this section. In contrast, Munn v Illinois 1876 decided that public regulation of private railroad companies was constitutional. No advance shall be made in the rates, fares, and charges which have been established and published as aforesaid by any common carrier in compliance with the requirements of this section, except after ten days' public notice, which shall plainly state the changes proposed to be made in the schedule then in force, and the time when the increased rates, fares, or charges will go into effect.
Cleveland's second appointee was William Morrison, a former Illinois congressman who was known for his attacks on protective tariffs. Eventually, the act was strengthened by Congress, but it took nearly two more decades to do so. Farmers worked through the Grange to secure state laws regulating rates and create commissions to enforce them. The previous record for the world's tallest structure lasted much longer—for about 4,430 years following the building of Cheops's Great Pyramid in c. No vacancy in the Commission shall impair the right of the remaining Commissioners to exercise all the powers of the Commission.
In some states, the Granger Law was passed due to the Panic of 1873. Railroads liked pools but preferred acquisitions to reduce competition. The Interstate Commerce Act was passed on February 4, 1887, to address the issues of railroad commerce and discrimination. That any person, firm, corporation, or association, or any mercantile, agricultural, or manufacturing society, or any body politic or municipal organization complaining of anything done or omitted to be done by any common carrier subject to the provisions of this act in contravention of the provisions thereof, may apply to said Commission by petition, which shall briefly state the facts; whereupon a statement of the charges thus made shall be forwarded by the Commission to such common carrier, who shall be called upon to satisfy the complaint or to answer the same in writing within a reasonable time, to be specified by the Commission. However, the postwar presidents and many in Congress resisted intervention in economic matters. For instance, in the 1880s the Trunk Line faced no competition between Chicago and St. Interstate Commerce Act for kids: The Railroad Monopolies The Interstate Commerce Act established the first true federal regulatory agency.
The rebates prevented other railroads from serving those businesses. The act authorized the commission to investigate any railroad engaged in interstate commerce. The Grain elevator operators bought the grain from farmers and many used their purchasing power to control prices. Too much competition also caused problems, as when railroads granted rebates to large businesses in order to secure exclusive access to their patronage. Congress had debated the effort for over a decade. On the contrary, the beneficiaries of the Protect Interstate Commerce Act would almost exclusively be huge agribusiness firms, businesses that adhere to the loosest letter of the law and find their profits reduced by regulations that raise the bar.
Over its 108-year history, the agency regulated and certified trains, trucks, buses, water carriers, freight forwarders, pipelines, and many other elements of interstate transportation. The Granger movement was supported by the farmers of Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Minnesota, and the Dakotas. These schemes resulted in for many rail carriers and their customers. Currently, if the people of one state decide that they want stricter regulation on, say, animal welfare, pesticide use, child labor laws, support for local farmers, or greenhouse gas emissions from farms, they can vote that regulation into being. Augustus Schoonmaker, a New York lawyer, was the third appointee.
In New York, for example, it is flat-out illegal to bring in any untreated firewood from any other state, due to fears of embedded pests. Every common carrier subject to the provisions of this act shall, according to their respective powers afford all reasonable, proper, and equal facilities for the interchange of trafffic between their respective lines, and for the receiving, forwarding, and delivering of passengers and property to and from their several lines and those connecting therewith, and shall not discriminate in their rates and charges between such connecting lines; but this shall not be construed as requiring any such common carrier to give the use of its tracks or terminal facilities to another carrier engaged in like business. The Elkins Act of 1903 32 Stat. Another example: many states have laws regarding what kind of firewood can be sold within their boundaries. Big railroad companies were not regulated. If such common carrier, within the time specified, shall make reparation for the injury alleged to have been done, said carrier shall be relieved of liability to the complainant only for the particular violation of law thus complained of.